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Short history of Mikołów villages and district Kamionka
The territory of our city includes five villages– Bujaków, Borowa Wieś, Mokre, Paniowy and Śmiłowice. Kamionka, within town limits since 1935, formerly an independent district, is also an important part of Mikołów.
Each of those has its individual history and character worth exploring.
Borowa Wieś was established in the 16th century by Karol von Promnitz, the owner of Pszczyna lands at that time. Its current name first appeared in documents dating back to the 17th century. It is derived from the word "bór" [forest] which used to mean a coniferous forest. Earlier the place was called Nowa Wieś, and its German equivalent - Neudorf was used in official documents until 1922.
Until mid 19th century all its residents were farmers. However in late 19th century, local population already included miners and steelworkers, the number of craftsmen also increased, mainly blacksmiths, bricklayers and tailors.
Since the 19th century the village has had an inn. Borowa Wieś was also "a popular tourist location and a summer resort" as it was described in a guide from 1904.
A school was opened in 1883. The school chronicle kept since that year includes interesting information about local life such as a list of 76 men from Borowa Wieś who were called up into German army during World War I.
During the 1920 referendum over 90% of its residents voted for Poland. In 1922 Borowa Wieś was incorporated into the Second Polish Republic. In the interwar period only 12% of the population had farming jobs and approximately 45% of families earned their living in mining industry. Residents were also involved in trade, animal breeding and craft. In 1933 two residents had radio receivers.
An important event took place in Borowa Wieś at the beginning of World War II, right after this part of Silesia was incorporated into the Third Reich. It was the consecration of St. Nicholas church, the first church in the history of the place, in December 1939. It is an old, wooden church moved to Borowa Wieś from Przyszowice in 1930s. It was probably built in the 17th century and is one of the most valuable examples of wooden architecture in Silesia.
In 1955 the place was fully electrified and a post office was opened a year later. The road to Gliwice, asphalted in the interwar period, was widened.
Since 1975 Borowa Wieś has been a village belonging to Mikołów.
In 1990 The Divine MercyDisabled Persons Center was opened here, it belongs to Caritas of Katowice Archdiocese.
Mokre was probably a knights' village already in the 14th century. However, the earliest preserved document which names the village owner, Piotr Kiczka, dates back to 1422. Peter's Pence lists from 1337 include an independent parish in Mokre. The local church dedicated to St. Laurence was a brick church in 1598, it was rebuilt many times and is now recognized as a valuable sacred monument.
As the area is rich in limestone, lime was burnt here for a long time. Limekilns preserved in the closed down quarries are the evidence of the material culture of this region and as such are now a part of the Silesian Botanical Garden. At the end of the 16th century the owner of Mokre, Kaspar Reitburg (Reideburg), opened here a salt making plant. At the same time a similar plant was opened in Śmiłowice by baron Promnitz, the owner of Pszczyna.
From the 17th century till the end of the 18th century Mokre had steelworks and a forge. Glassworks were opened in 1745 and still operated in the early days of the 19th century. Until the beginning of the 20th century Mokre had two mills and a sawmill which belonged to the village owners. Coal mining in Mokre started at the end of the 18th century and several dozen years later the business was more profitable than in the estate belonging to the Duke of Pszczyna. "Mokre", "Burghard and "Napoleon" mines operated in this area till the end of the 19th century. In mid 19th century mines started using the rail link from between Mikołów and Orzesze opened in 1856.
During the referendum in 1921 more than 75% of Mokre population voted for Poland.
In 1930s fortifications making up the Fortified Area of Silesia were built in the village. Shortly before World War II local population also helped to build fortifications.
In early September 1939 Mokre witnessed brave defensive action against German troops entering Silesia. General Jan Jagmin-Sadowski, the commander of the operating unit "Silesia" praised the bravery of the 341st Mikołów National Defence company.
In 1975 the village was incorporated into Mikołów.
In 1990s works on the Silesian Botanical Garden were launched. It is one of biggest projects in Poland, and it is the pride of Mokre and Mikołów and the entire Upper Silesia as well.
First mention of Paniowy dates back to 1282 - this is when knight Piotr of Paniowy, the son of Gosław of Paniowy is mentioned. The village was already private back then.
The first mention of the local church and parish priest dates back to 1325. The village and its church were destroyed in the 15th century, and their collapse probably started during the Hussite wars. The church dedicated to the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul was rebuilt in 1506, however in mid 18th century its condition was very poor. It was demolished and in 1757 the construction of a new church started which still exists today. It is one of the most valuable example of wooden architecture in Silesia.
Until mid 19th century most of the residents had jobs in farming, but there were also craftsmen, blacksmiths, tailors, shoemakers, wheelwrights, carpenters.
During the 18th century appraisal of Paniowy property, an entry was made that the village had a quarry and a limekiln, brick factory, ponds and a sheepfold. There was also a brewery and a distillery.
The location of Paniowy between two streams i.e. Pogromna and Woda Paniowska, contributed to the development of milling industry. Paniowy had five or six mills in the 18th century.
The school in Paniowy has existed since 1826. The school started keeping a chronicle in the same year. Bishop Józef Kurpas (1912-1992), participant of the Second Vatican Council, was one of the school's graduates. Since 1993 the school has been named after Wojciech Korfanty.
During the referendum in 1921 approx. 85% of Paniowy residents voted for Poland and the area was incorporated into the Second Polish Republic.
People of Silesia grew more religious following the difficult period of World War I and Silesian uprisings and therefore the parish in Paniowy was restored in August 1925.
During World War II many residents of Paniowy lost their lives, including among others Stanisław Piotrowski, prewar teacher in the local school who was killed in Katyń
In 1975 Paniowy was attached to Mikołów and became one of its villages.
The place was first mentioned in the 14th century.
The village was located close to a major trade route from the East through Kraków to Silesia and then to Wrocław. It was probably owned by Pszczyna rulers from its beginnings. In the 16th century most of the land belonged to the duke's manor which in the 19th century became an independent manor land belonging to the Duke of Pszczyna and now houses a local unit of the Silesian Agricultural Consulting Center.
Villagers were mostly farmers, Śmiłowice also had a sawmill and a salt making plant belonging to the owner of Pszczyna land, as well as limekilns. The salt making plant was opened at the end of the 16th century by baron Promnitz. Rock salt was brought there from Wieliczka and processed to obtain table salt.
During the referendum in 1921 approx. 85% of Śmiłowice residents voted for Poland and the place was incorporated into the Republic of Poland
What is worth seeing in Śmiłowice is an old baroque chapel. There is no information as to when it was built, and the legend says that it was built in a place where the so-called Swedish grave once was where protestant soldiers led by general Ernst von Mansfeld killed during the thirty years war (1618-1648) were buried.
An 18th century granary from Śmiłowice landed estate moved to Upper Silesian Ethnographic Park in Chorzów must also be mentioned.
However the most famous monument from the past that can be found in Śmiłowice are fortifications dating back to World War II with best preserved bunkers being part of the Fortified Area of Silesia - section "Mikołów". All bunkers were built before 1939 and witnessed the brave resistance of Polish soldiers in the first days of war.
Since 1975 Śmiłowice have been one of Mikołów's villages.
The building of a church in Śmiłowice started in 1982, it was consecrated by archbishop Damian Zimoń in 1992. It was also then that a separate parish dedicated to the Black Madonna of Częstochowa was established - from the very beginning the village belonged to St. Adalbert parish, and since 1995 to the parish of the Holy Virgin Mary The Mother of God Our Saviour in Mikołów.
First mention of Bujaków appeared at the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries in documents of Wrocław bishopric related to the obligation of paying tithe by residents of Bujaków. For hundreds of years Bujaków was privately owned. Until the 18th century the village belonged to Bujakowski family - however at the end they only owned one part of the village.
Until mid 19th century residents of Bujaków earned their living from farming. In the 17th century there were also wheelwrights, blacksmiths, saddlers, shoemakers, tailors, and a miller. At that time the village also had two watermills and one water sawmill, however mills must have been in place much earlier.
Mention of glassworks in Bujaków which produced window panes, glasses and bottles dates back to 1792. Unfortunately it was driven out of business by bigger glassworks.
In 1836 Bujaków was bought by Karol Godula, one of the biggest Silesian industrialists, referred to as the "Upper silesian king of zinc and coal". It was then that first mines - "Minette" and "Fortuna Franciszka" were opened in that area. His heirs registered other mining fields however in 1866 none of them was still open. Godula also opened a brick factory in Bujaków which made bricks which he then used for developing his factories and building houses for workers. In the 19th century Bujaków had three limekilns.
In 1922 Bujaków became a part of the Republic of Poland. It is worth mentioning here that Konstanty Wolny (1877-1940), close associate of Wojciech Korfanty, first speaker of the Silesian Parliament, not only came from Bujaków but was very much involved in the efforts to make Bujaków a part of Poland.
Many residents of Bujaków fell victim to World War II. During the occupation father Franciszek Górka, prewar parish priest in St. Nicholas church, died in Dachau concentration camp. Residents also honoured local policemen killed by Soviet secret police (NKWD) in 1940 in Ostashkov with a commemorative plaque.
The church in Bujaków is also worth mentioning. Its beginnings are related to a legend about St. Adalbert who is believed to have stopped here on his way from Moravia to Prussia at the end of the 10th century and founded a church there. This is however only one of a number of legends related to the Saint's visit which are also known in other places in Silesia. Nevertheless it can be assumed that the church in Bujaków, wooden at that time, has already existed ca. year 1300. The brick church was built at the beginning of the 16th century, and was then rebuilt several times. It was completely restored for its 500th anniversary.
In 1982 the statute of Our Lady, dating back to year 1480, was placed in the church. It used to be displayed in a shrine on the so-called Swedish grave by what is now known as W. Korfanty Street.
In year 2000 archbishop Damian Zimoń crowned the statue of Our Lady of Bujaków and proclaimed her the Patron Saint of the Natural Environment. There is a garden by the church with unique plants and a penitential cross.
Bujaków is the last village incorporated into Mikołów in 1995 following a referendum held among its residents.
The name Kamionka first appeared in a document dating back to year 1760 which mentions a local innkeeper, however first buildings were erected in this area approximately 30 years earlier. Back then the area belonged to Śmiłowice, it became an independent district in 1812.
An important road from Mikołów to Katowice runs through Kamionka. In late 19th century (1887) a brick neo-gothic shrine was built by the road. It was funded by Józefa Manowska née Tabor, the owner of the local inn. The shrine still exists today.
In 1902 a school was opened in Kamionka, and a few years later, in 1920, a "Falcon's nest" was created, it was an organization which promoted physical culture, patriotic spirit and cultural activities of local people - singers, mandolin players...
During the 1921 referendum over 94% of Kamionka residents voted for Poland and in 1922 Kamionka became a part of its territory. Voluntary Fire Service was established in 1927, and in 1935 it was annexed to Mikołów as its district although residents of Kamionka were against it.
During World War II, years 1941-1943 there was a German camp for Soviet prisoners of war here. Their graves are located in Kamionka forrest, there is also a monument and a plaque commemorating victims of that camp in the cemetery in Mikołów.
More than 30 residents of Kamionka were killed at the front. Józef Pisulski, a local prewar policeman, Ostashkov prisoner murdered by the Soviet secret police in 1940 in Twer and burried in Miednoje, has also been commemorated.
From its beginnings until 1966 Kamionka belonged to St. Adalbert parish in Mikołów. A separate parish was established in 1977 and St. Urban church was consecrated.
- Jacek Brachacki: Obrona Wzgórza 341, „Gazeta Mikołowska” nr 9/2009.
- Adrian A. Jojko: Kamionka. Monografia historyczna, Mikołów 2006
- Ks. Jerzy Kempa i Grzegorz Bolesław Marek: Historia miejscowości i parafii
Bujaków, Katowice 1995
- ks. Jerzy Kempa: Z historii Bujakowa, Katowice 2006.
- Ludwik Musioł: Bujaków. Monografia historyczna gminy i parafii, Katowice
- Ludwik Musioł: Mokre. Z dziejów wsi i parafii, Katowice 1995.
- Ludwik Musioł, Hubert Szymankiewicz: Paniowy. Monografia historyczna
miejscowości, kościoła i parafii, Katowice 1993.
- Przemysław Noparlik: Historia szkoły w Mikołowie-Borowej Wsi na tle
dziejów miejscowości, Mikołów 2009.
- Janina Szołtysek, Mariusz Dmetrecki: Ocalić od zapomnienia, z dziejów
szkoły paniowskiej, Mikołów 2008.